[Fund Project] The National Social Science Foundation's key project "Research on the Development of Chinese Ethnic Theories in the Forty Years of Reform and Opening Up" (project number: 18AMZ002), the National Social Science Foundation project "Research on Contemporary College Students' Chinese Ethnic Community Consciousness, Knowledge and Action Conflict and Educational Intervention" (No. 19BMZ078); PhD staff of Weifang Medical College initiated the funded project "Research on Ethnic Relations and Ethnic Work in the Process of Urbanization" (Project No .: 2019BSQD19).
General Secretary Xi Jinping ’s important speech at the “National National Unity and Progress Commendation Conference” is rich in content and profound in thought. It enriches and develops the socialist ethnic theory with Chinese characteristics in the new era, further enriches and develops the Marxist ethnic theory, and further promotes national unity. It is of great significance to innovate in the cause of progress, to continue to forge the awareness of the Chinese nation community, and to lead the people of all ethnic groups throughout the country to work together and prosper.
[Keywords] 70 years of new China; ethnic field; ethnic unity and progress; experience
The Chinese nation has experienced a long development process. Archeological data indicate that since the Paleolithic Age, in the vast areas of China, there have been sites of early human activities and remaining historical footprints. Historical development shows that people of all nationalities have engaged in exchanges and exchanges very early because of social, economic, and living needs. All ethnic groups are in development, not staying on the original scale, nor are they independent. The frequent exchanges, blending and cohesion among various ethnic groups have gradually formed a "multiple unity" pattern of the Chinese nation, "I have you in me and you in me."
I. Persist in accurately grasping the basic national conditions of a unified multi-ethnic country in China, and safeguard the national unity and national unity as the highest interests of all nationalities
General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out in an important speech at the 2019 Central Ethnic Work Conference, "The great unification of multiple ethnic groups and the pluralistic integration of all ethnic groups are an important asset left by our ancestors and an important advantage of our country. "" Multi-ethnicity is a major feature of our country and a great factor in our development. " This is General Secretary Xi Jinping's innovative judgment on basic national conditions, and it is also a new height of national theory and a new spiritual realm. General Secretary Xi Jinping also pointed out when talking about the basic national conditions, "All ethnic groups have jointly developed the splendid rivers and mountains of the motherland and the vast territory, and jointly created a long history of China and a splendid Chinese culture."
Comrade Deng Xiaoping emphasized safeguarding the motherland's reunification and opposed ethnic splits. He made it clear in his inspection work in Xinjiang in 1981: "It is not allowed to split and deal with anyone who commits it." Comrade Jiang Zemin put forward the idea of "three inseparableness" of all ethnic groups during the inspection work in Xinjiang in September 1990. Affirmation and inheritance of the party's and state's long-standing and united thoughts on national unity. Comrade Hu Jintao put forward at the new stage of the new century to promote the unity, struggle and common prosperity of all nationalities. "National unity and national unity are the political foundation for the common prosperity of all nations and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Maintaining national unity and national unity is not only the goal of the country, but also the obligation of every citizen as stipulated in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. It shows that safeguarding national unity and national unity is the highest interest of all nationalities, and it needs the people of all nationalities to achieve it together.
When the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, as a unified multi-ethnic country, it was unclear how many nationalities there were. In the first census conducted in 1953, there were more than 400 ethnic names reported nationwide. In 1953, the country began to identify ethnic groups. In 1954, 38 ethnic minorities were identified. In 1964, Qiao ethnic minorities were identified. In 1965, the Luba ethnic group was identified as a single ethnic group. In 1979, the Jino ethnic group was identified as a single ethnic group. The government has identified 56 ethnic components. The data of the sixth national census in 2019 shows that the Han population accounts for 91.51% of the national population, and the minority population is relatively small, accounting for 8.49% of the national population. Although ethnic minorities have a small population, they are widely distributed, and many provinces have 56 ethnic groups.
[Brief introduction] Lin Junchang, postdoctoral, professor of School of Public Health and Management, Weifang Medical University, research interests: floating population services and management, ethnic relations, and ethnic social work.
[Abstract] General Secretary Xi Jinping's "Important Speech at the National Commendation for National Unity and Progress" profoundly summarized the valuable experience in the ethnic field since the founding of New China, forming the "nine adherences", rich in content, profound in thought, and enriched and developed. The socialist ethnic theory with Chinese characteristics in the new era has enriched and developed the Marxist ethnic theory. The purpose of this thesis is to learn to interpret the first five "persistences" in the "nine persistences" experience in the field of ethnicity.
Comrade Mao Zedong said: "China is a country with a large population formed by a combination of majorities." "In our country, the number of ethnic minorities is small and the area is large. In terms of population, the Han nationality accounts for 94%, which is an overwhelming advantage. ... and who has more land? The land is more ethnically minority, accounting for 50 to 6 percent. Ten. "In the great family of our great motherland, there are 56 ethnic groups who all have equal rights and status and are the masters of the country. Due to the small number of ethnic groups other than the Han nationality, we are used to collectively referring to them as "ethnic minorities." In the long-term historical development process, due to the need for production and living to communicate with each other, or affected by factors such as local separatism and natural disasters, a large number of people moved, forming a ethnic distribution pattern of "large mixed living, small living together". This situation reflects the close ties between our nations in politics, economy, and culture.
2. Adhere to the Sinicization of Marxist Nationality Theory and Firmly Take the Correct Road to Solve Ethnic Problems with Chinese Characteristics